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Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 1995, 46(1): 13-20

Zawartość kadmu w całodziennych racjach pokarmowych dzieci wiejskich w wieku szkolnym
[Cadmium content in daily food rations o f rural school-agechildren]

L. Bilczuk, J. Jastrzębska, H. Mach, Z. Ebertowska, J. Zwoliński, L. Cygan

ABSTRACT

Cadmium was determined in 230 daily food rations of children aged 8-9 years and 12-13 years. The study was carried out in spring and in autumn during three successive days. Daily meals were collected from the households selected in the area of five villages. Cadmium was determined by the extraction ASA method, after dry mineralization at about 450°C. The level of cadmium in the examined food rations varied from 6 to 569 µg/person/day, with the mean value of 43.5 ± 52.6 µg/person/day, and the median of 31.3 µg. In 93% of food rations the amount of cadmium was below the upper limit - the dose permitted by the WHO for adults i.e. 57-71 µg/day. Considering the children’s smaller body weight the daily cadmium intake in food rations was converted into the daily cadmium intake per 1 kilogram body weight. In the group of children aged 8-9 years cadmium intake was 0.3-15 µg, with the mean value of 1.7 µg, and in the group of 12-13-years-old children it was 0.1-13.9 µg, with the mean of 1.3 fig. Only 36% of food rations in the group of younger children and 58% of food rations in the older group contained the amount of cadmium below the tolerable value of 1 µg/kg body weight/day. The weekly cadmium intake was calculated for each child based on its amount in daily food rations during the successive three days. The mean value was 12.3µg/kg body weight, with the median of 8.1 µg, within the range of values 2.1-58.8 µg. The upper limit of tolerable value permitted by WHO i.e. 6.7-8.3 µg/kg b.w./week was exceeded in 37 out of 79 children in the study, which makes up 47%. Moreover, the great majority of the examined food rations did not satisfy the children’s requirements for calcium and magnesium. Cadmium intake exeeding tolerable dose, with a simultaneous calcium and magnesium deficiency increases the health risk.

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