PDF

Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2022, 73(4): 387-402

Position statement of the Polish Academy of Sciences Committee Human Nutrition Science on the principles for the nutrition of children aged 1–3 years
[Position statement of the Polish Academy of Sciences Committee Human Nutrition Science on the principles for the nutrition of children aged 1–3 years]

Halina Weker, Mariola Friedrich, Katarzyna Zabłocka-Słowińska, Joanna Sadowska, Jadwiga Hamułka, Anna Długosz, Jadwiga Charzewska, Jarosław Walkowiak, Piotr Socha, Lidia Wądołowska

ABSTRACT
The Position Statement on the principles of nutrition for children aged 1-3 years emphasizes that proper nutrition of children at this age determines their optimal psychometric development and has beneficial effects on the process nutritional programming, which reduces the risk of diet-related diseases in adulthood. Continued breastfeeding in the post-infancy period, together with the proper introduction of complementary foods, supplies all the nutritional needs of the child. A varied selection of food products is important to balance out the diet of a child in the context of energy and nutrient needs. Attention should be paid to products not recommended for frequent consumption, due to the possibility of the early development of improper eating habits that can lead to undesirable health consequences. Due to the potential risk of deficiency, adequate intake of iron, iodine, calcium and vitamin D, as well as of n-3 PUFAs (which is often insufficient) should be provided. Adequate dietary energy and protein intake protects children against protein–energy undernutrition and is crucial for their proper growth and development. An important element in the assessment of the development of children involves monitoring their nutritional status and physical development by systematically measuring their body weight and length/height and analyzing their weight gain. It is necessary to diagnose the causes of being underweight/overweight in children. Physical activity (such as outdoor walks, plays, and games) and healthy sleep hygiene are recommended. Physical activity, an adequate number of hours of sleep, and the quality of sleep in early childhood may improve immunity, reduce the risk of excessive weight gain, and consequently reduce the risk of obesity later in life.
Other issues discussed include the functioning of the digestive system as one of the determinants of the nutrition of young children, basics of proper nutrition, risk of nutrient deficiencies and development of proper eating habits in early childhood.

Liczba pobrań: 598