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Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2023, 74(1): 71-81

Health workers’ capability, opportunity, motivation, and behavior to prevent and control COVID-19 in a high-risk district in Thailand
[Health workers’ capability, opportunity, motivation, and behavior to prevent and control COVID-19 in a high-risk district in Thailand]

Suttida Sangpoom, Femi Adesina, Joenathan Saetang, Nittaya Thammachot, Kawintida Jeenmuang, Charuai Suwanbamrung

ABSTRACT
Background. Village health volunteers have been an important group who plays the role in prevention and control of COVID-19 pandemic situations at primary care units, Thailand.
Objective. The objective of this cross-sectional analytic study was to assess the level and analyze the association between personal information, capability, opportunities, motivations, and behaviors to prevent and control COVID-19 among Village healthy volunteers in a high risk district, Southern Thailand.
Material and Methods. G*power program was used to calculate the sample size of 145 VHVs recruited for this study. Data collection was done using a well-structured questionnaire with 5-point Likert scale for capability, opportunities, motivations, and behaviors component, and multi-stage sampling of 18 sub-district health promoting hospitals was carried out. Data analysis was done using descriptive, Chi-square and Fisher Exact test.
Results. Majority (89.7%) of the VHVs were female, and 62.8% were 28-59 years old. More than half, 55.9% (81) have been VHVs for 11-36 years. Generally, higher capacity was found among 59.3% (86) of the VHVs, low opportunity level among 81.4% (118), high motivation among 53.8% (78) and a good behavior towards the prevention and control of COVID-19 among 72.4% (105). The VHVs’ age and duration of practicing were significantly (P< 0.01 and P < 0.05 respectively) associated with COVID-19 prevention behavior (x2 =6.894 and 5.255 respectively). Likewise, there are significant association between capacity (p ≤ 0.001 and x2 = 31.014), opportunity (p≤ 0.05 and x2 = 9.473), motivation (p ≤ 0.001 and x2 = 0.0001) and VHVs' behaviour to prevent and control COVID-19.
Conclusion. HVHs’ opportunity is very low in the study area and it negatively affects good behavior for the prevention and control of COVID-19. All stakeholders in the district can use the association among the capability, opportunity, motivation and behavioral model to develop practice guideline and set policy for preventing COVID-19 in the community.

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