Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2019, 70(1): 89-96

Identification of metabolic indicators for cardiovascular risk in schoolchildren
[Identification of metabolic indicators for cardiovascular risk in schoolchildren]

Monica López Palafox, Luis Celis, Maria del Socorro Camarillo Romero, Amparo Russi, Araceli Consuelo Hinojosa Juárez, Carmen Cecilia Almonacid Urrego, Eneida Camarillo Romero, Hugo Mendieta Zerón

Objective. CardioVascular Disease (CVD) is one of the most important causes of death worldwide affecting people at younger ages every year. The purpose of this study was to identify the metabolic indicators for cardiovascular risk factors in primary school students from Mexico and Colombia.
Methods. A clinical, prospective, cross-sectional and comparative study was conducted in Mexico and Colombia to contrast anthropometric measurements, biochemical and dietetic determinations and physical activity.
Results. The Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR) and the Waist-to-Height Ratio (WtHR) showed significant differences (p≤0.001) between Mexico and Colombia (0.8 ± 0.1 versus 0.5 ± 0.1) and (0.4 ± 0.06 vs. 0.78 ± 0.04) respectively. The Automatic Linear Modeling showed that the main predictors for cholesterol levels were WtHR, MonoUnsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA) and lipids ingestion. For glucose there were four main predictors: WHR, carbohydrates, MUFA and Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA). For triglycerides the pedictors were Products of Animal Origin (PAO), BMI, waist circumference, lipids and cholesterol ingestion and Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP). The Weight Estimation tests weighted per gender showed that for glucose levels the main determinants were carbohydrates, MUFA and oils; for cholesterol these were MUFA, PUFA and oils; and for LDL the significant variables were proteins, SFA, PAO and sugars; and last, for triglycerides the main variables were BMI, cholesterol and vegetables.
Conclusions. Mexico has higher values in almost all items of cardiovascular risk in children, but both countries have significant percentages of obesity and the population free of cardiovascular risk is minimal.

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