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Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 1995, 46(2): 151-161

Cząstki pyłu i metale ciężkie w powietrzu zewnętrznym i w pomieszczeniach na Górnym Śląsku
[Airborne particles and metals in Upper Silesia outdoors and indoors]

R. L. Górny, A. Jędrzejczak, J. S. Pastuszka

ABSTRACT

This work contains the results of the aerosol mass size distribution and preliminary studies on concentrations and size distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe and Cd) in indoor and outdoor environment in Upper Silesia (the highly industrialized region in the southern part of Poland). In studies, the measurements of aerosol concentration, mass size distrubution, and evaluation of heavy metals concentration were made from December 1992 to April 1994 in some apartmens in five towns in Upper Silesia and in one village in the Beskidy Mountains in both indoor and outdoor environments. The particles were fractionated in Andersen cascade impactor. The sampling time was 6-7 days and 4-5 days for indoor and outdoor respectively. Aerosol particulates were collected on А-type glass fiber collection substrate used later for determination of heavy concentrations by atomic absorption spectrophometer (AAS 3, Carl Zeiss Jena). The dust was mineralized by the means of the mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids. The results of mass size distribution as well as the measurements of TSP for indoor and outdoor aerosol show that the main source of particulate matter indoors, in this region, are heavy polluted outdoor air and cigarette smoking. It can be said that, except homes in Knurow and Sosnowiec with hard smokers, the indoor levels of particulate pollution were significant lower than the outdoors levels. Whenever in the indoor environment appeare additional source of particulate emission situation can changed. When we compare mass size distribution for outdoor aerosol and indoor aerosol contaminated by tobacco smoke, we can observed considerable increase of indoor aerosol level in the 0.33-0.54 /xm size range. Besides, indoor aerosol status may be changed by coal stove emission (displacement of maximum peak to direction of coarse particles). The observed differences in concentration of pariculate matter may also indicate the important differences in chemical and physical nature of particles caused by the air filtration and absorption during migration of ambient air into the indoor environment. On the base of comparison of the heavy metals concentrations of fine and coarse fraction and their indoor/outdoor ratio in five selected towns in Upper Silesia it can be said that the level of heavy metals in indoor aerosol is lower than in outdoor (except Pb and Cd) what suggest that migration of ambient air into the homes is a major process which give indoor air contamination of heavy metals. With reference to cadmium and lead the indoor/outdoor ratio for coarse fraction of particles (from 2,6 to 28 цт size range) is above 1 what suggest the presence of an additional indoor emission. However, no dominant source of cadmium and lead was identified, although existing minor source like carpet wear, paints and coal stove can emit some load of these metals. The coarse/fine heavy metal concentrations ratio for both indoor and outdoor air is in all cases lower than 1, indicating that these metals are mainly associated with the fine particle mode.

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